Wednesday, October 15, 2014



1. Give ANTONYMS of the following words:

     significant X insignificant
     dislike  X  like, liking
     passion X calm, calmness
     luxury   X need, essential, penury
     understatement   X  exaggeration 

2. Give ANTONYMS of the following words:

     Frequently = again and again, often, regularly
     comprehensive = absolute, whole
     comfort    =   amenity, quiet, plenty
     purchase = acquire, buy, again
     prosper = benefit, arrive, bloom, blossom
3. Give the meaning of the following phrases and use them in sentences of your own:

     a. Over time=working hours in addition to those of a regular schedule.
          ex: He did five hours over time this week.
      b. long sought after= in great demand , need
          ex: An Olympic gold medal is the long sought after prize in spots.
      c.  expand one's horizons = to experience and learn new things,
           ex: Read more! Go our! and expand your horizons.
      d. try one's hand at something = to try doing something for the first time .
          ex: I might try my hand at a bit of North Indian cooking .
      f. With regard to = concerning, about
          ex: A change in the laws with regard to food safety.

Tuesday, October 7, 2014

I BTech I SEM English Essentials - The Knowledge Society - A P J Abdul Kalam


          The “Knowledge society” is an extract taken from Abdul Kalam’s popular and famous book “Ignited Minds”. He tells that poverty can be rooted out by striking a balance between the past heritage and present day knowledge. He believes  in that India can reach the pinnacles and glory by following certain principles and applying modern technology.
          Knowledge has always been the prime mover of prosperity and power. India is a land of knowledge and it must rediscover itself. The foreign invasions and the colonial rule weakened India considerably. Knowledge has many forms and it is available at many places. It is acquired through education, information, intelligence and experience. It is manifested in artists, craftsmen, hakims, philosophers and saints. It plays a vital role.    
          India has been a country of great ancient heritage and culture. Knowledge acquisition has been thrust throughout the world. In addition, in Indian culture there has been the Guru-Shishya tradition and sharing of its knowledge even with the foreign travellers and students.
         During the last century the world has been changed from being an agriculture society to an industrial society. Now Technology is playing a crucial role. In 21st century knowledge has become the primary production resource instead of capital and labour. The qualification of a nation as knowledge society goes with its creation and deployment of knowledge.
          The knowledge society has two very important components driven by societal transformation and wealth generation. The societal transformation is in respect of education, health-care, agriculture and governance.

          In order to emerge as a knowledge super power by 2010 we should have tri-dimensional objects of societal transformation, wealth generation and knowledge protection. For this we have to protect our network and information generators from electronic attacks through surveillance and monitoring. There should be a focused approach to intellectual rights and related issues and Further we should protect our ancient knowledge and culture .

I BTech I SEM English Essentials - In London - M K Gandhi

In London    
               “In London” is an extract taken from the autobiography of Gandhi ,titled “My Experiments With Truth” being  translated into English by Mahdev Desai. Gandhi is known for his simplicity. In this lesson he tells us how he struggled hard when he stayed in London for his education.
              He decided that he should not trouble others. He was a vegetarian and he wanted to cultivate other accomplishments which make him a decent Gentleman in society. Bond street was the centre of fashionable life in London. He felt  that the Bombay clothes were unsuitable to English society. So he bought new ones at “ The Army and Navy” stores. He learnt the art of tying for himself. He wanted to dress like an  Englishman. Gandhi started taking lessons in dancing , French and elocution. He even attempted to take lessons in music but could not follow the Piano. He thought that he should learn to play the Violin in order to cultivate an ear for the Western music.
          In his retrospection he thought that he was not going to spend a life time in England. This thought made him realise that he was wasting money . Having listened to him, the dance teacher was convinced and encouraged him to go ahead. He wrote letters to the other teachers also. They encouraged his idea. He struggled for austerity and frugality. He exercised strict economy in all aspects. His living with a family involved him a lot of unnecessary expenditure. So he decided to take two rooms on his own account. The rooms were close to the business place. So, he walked eight miles every day and this kept him physically healthy.
         Gandhi knew that the Bar examinations did not require great study. On a friend’s advice Gandhi decided to pass the London Matriculation ,though it was difficult he passed in  his next attempt. He was forced to learn Latin which was very useful in the paper of Roman law. Gradually , he acquired a taste for Latin ,French  and Chemistry.
      Anyhow , Gandhi felt that his way of living did not fit in the modest means of his family . So, he adjusted himself with one room instead of two rooms and cooked food at home for breakfast .  Plain living saved his plenty of time and he passed his examination . Gandhi says at the end that he spent only frugal life which by no means of dreary one.

I.        Vocabulary  (page 7)
1.       Make up for
2.       Perpetual
3.       Undertake
4.       Lose heart
5.       Accomplishment
6.       Infatuation
7.       Recluse
8.       Emulate
9.       Lingua franca
10.   Disbursed

II.       Synonyms (Page 8)
1.       Preliminary = Initial
2.       Fashionable = Moderate
3.       Clumsy = Awkwardly
4.       Dreary = boring
5.       Excessive = stylish
6.       Emulate = excel
7.       Perpetual incessant

III.       Antonym (Page 8)
1.       Valuable  X cheap
2.       Civilized X unpolished
3.       Surplus X deficit
4.       Obsolete X latest
5.       Occasionally X often
6.       Ambitious X uninterested

Add –Ons  (A)  (page 8 & 9)
1.       Prophecy
2.       Mortal
3.       Famine
4.       Owe
5.       Debt
6.       Trade
7.       Ancestor
8.       Decree
9.       Borrow
10.   Consent

Add –Ons  (B)  (page 9)
1.       Severe
2.       Shook
3.       Spoke in a low voice
4.       Disappeared suddenly
5.       Skilled people who assist the captain

Add –Ons (C) (page 10)
1.       Acceptance
2.       Consent
3.       Ancestral
4.       Sell
5.       Famine
6.       Borrow
7.       Owed
8.       Prophet
9.       Terrible
10.   Muttered

Sunday, June 22, 2014

II BTech II Sem : Tsunami Religion

Tsunami Religion
Understanding the Text: Main ideas
1.      Laughter and Bells of happiness constantly rang from house no.22
2.      The inmates of House no.22 were always together and joyful.
3.      It was a happy family and it had drawn  a rainbow of happiness on the street.
4.      The narrator got a chance to pull himself beside Mr X from house no.22 without any congestion charge.
5.      Mr.Karan Patel was a fine Indian gentleman who held a prestigious Chief executive position in an American Company.
6.      He wanted bring up his daughter on his own.
7.      Meera loved eating bananas and Patong in Thai means ‘the forest filled with banana leave’. So Meera had chosen Patong beach located in Phuket.
8.      Her mom said to her that she was missing both of them and wanted them to be with her; but the time was not right.
9.      Tsunami, a giant monstrous wave about thirty feet high consumed the earth.
10.  A young girl of about thirteen years was lying on the bed next to Karan Patel.
11.  Karan Patel found his daughter in Kamala Beach.
12.  The religion of Munira was Islamic.
13.  The religion of Karan Patel and his family was Hinduism.

Looking at language: vocabulary by Phrasal verb
1.      Moved intotake possession of new house
Ex: Victoria moved in with her new boy friend.
2.      Pull up- Come to a halt
Ex: he pulled up outside the cottage.
3.      Brought up-  to bring up
She was partly brought up by her maternal grandparents.
4.      Make of- Make something into
Cricket bats are made of willow.
5.      Look for- attempt to find
Ravi is looking for you.
6.      Get up- rise
  Get up early in the morning.
7.      Rushed off- be very busy.
  Ex: I was rushed off on Sunday.
8.      Ran down: reduce in size
  Ex: the battery has run down.
9.      Looked up: He looked her up when he was in his area.

Literary Concept: Theme
1.      Yes, I agree with Mrs.Wellington words . The three of them were always together and joyful and had drawn a rainbow of happiness in their street.
2.      Premonition means a strong feeling that something is about to happen especially something unpleasant. Premonition has give prior intimation to Karen Patel that unavoidable situation is going to happen but they may turn up safely.
3.      It’s Happy New Year to Karen Patel as it has given him new life to him and to his daughter and added a new member in his family.
4.      ‘Tsunami Religion’ differs from common man’s notion of religion and religious beliefs. It creates a society where there is no place for caste, creed, and religion and people of this society work together with coordination and cooperation.
5.      Act of adopting Munira is a spontaneous reaction. Munira was a girl of thirteen years who lost her family members in Tsunami. Mr.Karan Patel was also separated from his only daughter from Tsuanmi. During this time, he came across Munira who was next to his bed and weeping continuously for her helpless situation. Mr. Karan had found resemblances of his daughter in her and his heart felt both for his daughter and Munira. When he found his daughter and Munira in Kamala beach, he decided to adopt Munira and treat her as his own daughter.
6.      He had understood the true meaning of life. After the death of his wife, he searched happiness in his daughter and decided to bring uup Meera on his own. Ever after the tragic happening of Tsunami , he did not lose his will and with confidence he searched for his daughter. He learned to live cheerfully and joyfully.
7.      Yes, we support the decision taken by Mr.Karan Patel. If he had remarried , he would have concentrated on new and he would have neglected his daughter. The personality of a child does not depend either she is brought up by a single parent or both but it depends upon the affection and concentration they show on baby.
8.      It enhance our religious and social values.
It gives us an opportunity for re-union of family members and friends.
9.      People of Thailand are sympathetic to the victims of disaster.
Two instances that exhibit the sympathetic attitude of the people of Thailand-
a)      Karan was helped by the volunteers in search of his daughter.
b)      His daughter was taken care by the volunteers and they were eagerly trying to pass on the information to her relations.
10.    The area was effected badly by Tsunami. Houses were flattened and people were scavenging through leftovers. Only little remained to cater the needs of the survivors.
11.  If I was Karen Patel, I would have done the same. Religion, caste and creed are the walls built by mankind. One should not confine oneself to these boundaries.

Literary Concepts: Simile.

1.      Simile is a figure of speech that describes something by comparing or establishing its similarity to something else. Some examples with their meanings:
1.      As cool as cucumber – cool headed.
2.      As gentle as lamb – Gentle- non reactive.
3.      To drink like fish  -  to drink a lot.
4.      To sleep like a log  -  to sleep soundly.
5.      As wise as an owl -  very wise.

Literary Concepts: Personification
1.      The alarm clock screams at me every morning.
2.      Art  is a jealous mistress.
3.      The sun was playing hide and seek with the clouds.
4.      My computer hates to do my homework
5.      Season off mists and mellow fruitfulness close bosom- friends of the maturing sun(Ode to Autumn)

Literary Concepts: Metaphor

1.      Expressions like ‘angel’ and ‘puppet’ convey his affection for his daughter. It takes time for Mr.KaranPatel to use such expressions to Munira as she is not his own daughter and adopted by him after the devastating situation.

Reading Journal:

1.      She is shocked and preoccupied with the pain of Munira.
2.      The short story titled ‘Man from Kabul’ by Rabindra Nath Tagore is similar to this story. In ‘Man from Kabul’ , there was a man known as Kabuliwallah. He had left his family behind in Afghanistan to make his way through life and during this time he began longing to see his daughter. Then one day he came across a young girl named Mini whom he felt resembled his daughter and become attached.
           In ‘Tsunami Religion’ Karan Patel had lost his daughter in disaster for sometime and during this time he came across Munira who was separated from her family members. Karan had seen his daughter in Munira and got attached to her and so he adopted her .
3.      Human relationships always help us to carry on because they always presuppose further developments. This world is a huge stage and we all people are the actors playing own roles. We people do not leave our natural life rather always in constrain of relationship and bound to act accordingly.  And this constrain is a bond, binds all persons together. Mrs. Anjali Prashar has brought out clearly this emotionally sensitive relations in her essay ‘Tsunami Religion’
       This story brings out the lovely attachment between daughter and father and it shows how that affection culminated in creating new bond. Karan, a fine Indian gentleman, held a position of an executive officer in American Company. His wife died from a brain tumour . He decided not to remarry and brought up Meera on his own. Then he was separated from his only daughter for some days in disaster. During this time, he happened to meet Munira, who resembles like his daughter. His heart had melt for Munira. Even after he was reunited with his daughter, he adopted Munira and treated her as his own daughter.


Understanding the text: Main ideas 
1.      To inform him about his suicidal tendency.
2.      Mary had left him and he had also quit his job.
3.      Doug was irritated continuously with unending questions by Govinda.
4.   To stop Doug from his suicidal attempt, the suicidal section used confrontational   
5.      Doug was bent on committing suicide but his soul did not accept his decision and so he stepped back unknowingly when a rock sailed down.
6.      Black mood – State of frustration and disappointment. Turn Red – angry, annoyed. Mood of disappointment and frustration turned to angry.
7.      Doug’s mood turned red when he was continuously irritated by Govinda.
8.      A kind of ill feeling developed between the cricket lovers of Australia and India. The ill feeling that developed between the two countries’s made Doug critical of India and Indians.
9.      Straight shooting- loyal, frank and honest. Straight bribing – disloyal, cunning cheating others.
10.  Sergeant Govinda engaged Doug in his hostile talk and succeeded in changing Doug’s intention of committing suicide.
11.  confrontational therapy as
12.  Sergeant used confrontational therapy to stop Govinda from his attempt. So he can be credited for the success of confrontational therapy.
Looking at Language : Writing style
 If the fact about confrontational therapy had been revealed in the beginning of the story then it would not create any kind of suspense and even the readers would not enjoy the lesson. We expect exiting and new ideas in every reading of ours and the narrator of this story left no stone unturned in creating suspense.
Vocabulary by theme 
Doug snarled, black mood turned red, Doug glared, Doug sighed are some of the expressions in the story which reflect Doug’s gloomy mental state.
1.      I am about to throw myself over the cliff and all you care about are your files.
2.      I am going to jump now, right now, and on your head be it.
3.      No, hell. I live in hell.
The above are some of the sentences which reflect gloomy mental state of Doug’s.

Vocabulary by Emotion: 
1.      Worried anxiety. 
2. Angry
3. Relaxed 
4. Annoyed 
5. Disappoint 
6. Annoyed 
7. Satirical 
8. Provoking 
9. Aggressive.
Literary Concept: Theme. 
1.      Doug Wood is bent on committing suicide because Mary had left him and he had also quit his job. But his self conscious is eagerly waiting for support and reassurance and it made Doug to convey his intention of committing suicide to the police.
2.      ‘Lover’s Leap, Sunshine Coast’ was the address given by Doug to sergeant. But sergeant Govinda didn’t find his address. It created doubt in Doug’s mind whether Govinda was a policeman or anything. His black mood turned red. He forgot about his depression and made his conversation more hostile. This part of their conversation proved to be the turning point.
3.      To bring Doug Wood from his suicidal tendencies, sergeant Govinda pretended to be Govinda of Poona.
4.      As a part of confrontational therapy, Govinda raised hostile talk between Dougwood and him. So that Dougwood would get angry on him and turn back to take revenge on him.
5.      There is a kind of behavioral disorder in Doug. He decided to commit suicide when Mary had left him and he even quit his job in a state of frustration and disappointment. But when he heard a word of insult on Ozzie cricket, he couldn’t control himself. He had given secondary place to Mary and his job and decided to take revenge on sergeant.
Cultural Point: Univeral and Local.
1.      Confrontation that was brought by Govinda between him and Dougwood was the first and the foremost reason.
2.      If there had been straight talk on the issue, he would not have agreed to get back from committing suicide. There sympathy would create more and more frustration in him and it would give courage to take drastic decision.
3.       Ill feeling between Indian cricketers and Australians made Govinda to use it as a topic to bring confrontation.
4.      Suicide is a heinous crime in any civilized country. A suicide person may not ask for help but that doesn’t mean help is not wanted. Through understanding, reassurance and support one can help ones’ loved one to overcome thoughts of suicide.
         Suicide prevention is a collective effort of Local Citizen Organizations, Mental Health Practitioners and related professional and so the government agencies should be entrusted with the task of social policing.

Literary concepts: Satire.
1.      The vices of society and individual have been satirized in Dial 000. This short story is a stinging satire on the mechanical modern life, racial and regional bias, call centre culture, and ill feeling between the cricket lovers of Australia and India. These issues affect the feeling of readers. This attempt may bring minimum changes in reader state of affairs and never allow any kind of suicidal tendency even in a state of gloominess.
Literary Concepts: Irony 

1.It is just an example of irony. Govinda’s intention was to stop Doug from committing suicide. So he engaged Doug in a hostile talk and tried to bring confrontation with his utterances.
Some more examples of irony in this lesson –
‘ You and who’s eleven ?Before and after your jump.’
‘What number hell, sir?’
‘Press one for suicide, two for assault…’
Literary Concepts: Assonance 
1.            ‘Would as in could’ is a close repetition of identical vowel sounds. Hence, we can say it as a clear example of assonance.
Reading Journal:
1.Doug was bent on committing suicide but that doesn’t mean help is not wanted. His sould would have been eagerly waiting for suppot and assurance. This made him to call police but not to seek attention of the world.
2. One would come across similar end in the short story ‘An Astrologer’s day by R.K.Narayana. One of the important characters in ‘Astrologer’s day’ was an Astrologer. He would sit under the boughs of a spreading tamarind tree which flanked a running through the Town Hall Park. His sharp abnormal eyes search continuously for customers. He had a working analysis of mankind’s trouble, marriage, money, and the tangle of human ties. Long practice had sharpened his perception. One day, he was challenged by a customer. He was ready to give coins what astrologer demanded but astrologer had to return double coins if the customer would not get convinced. Astrologer muttered in the beginning but later he accepted his challenge. He convinced the customer that he would face a great danger if he would move again from home. He said that he would live hundred if he would not travel south word again. The customer was convinced with his words and left that place. Later astrologer told his wife that he escaped a great danger. When he was in village he drank, gambled, and quarreled badly with a man and used knife on him and ran away from village. He got settled as an astrologer. After many years, the man who was injured by him came to him in search of the man who tried to kill him. Anticipating the danger that was to come on him, he diverted his mind with his words.
          Similar end we can find in Dial 000. Doug was diverted by Govinda with his hostile talk and was stopped from committing suicide.
Various reasons for the youth to get depressed:
Depression is an extremely complex disease. It occurs for a variety of reasons.
 Many young people suffer from mental depression due to a variety of different things they face in our modern world. As we know mental health is very necessary to do any kind of work, so depression is a great problem for youth. Youth are the pillars of the society and nation. If the y themselves suffers then what support and reassurance can he give to others?
It is important for everyone to be concerned about this widespread problem in youth. Once, I heard from my teacher that three of his friends committed suicide due to depression at the age of twenty-two. From this, we come to realize how deeply young people are getting depressed in this competitive modern world. In Nepal, out of every four youth one is mentally ill or depressed. However, they can’t express the reason of depression to others and, therefore, cannot solve their problem and become depressed day by day.
 Now let us know some of the main reasons for mental depression.
Tense house: some homes are so tense that no one would want to live there. There is always quarrelling between parents which cause members of that house, especially teenagers and children, to mentally suffer very much. This results in depression and they become vulnerable to drugs and other dangers.
Unhealthy competition:
Unhealthy competition is one of the main reasons for youth to be depressed. In this modern world, there is competition in every field, there is less change to get the job or scholarship or any other thing. If they don’t get these things, they become depressed. So young people should be kept away from unhealthy competition.
Low self-esteem is often flagged as a predictor of adolescent depression. This claim is supported by longitudinal research which shows that children who perceive themselves as academically, socially, or physically incompetent are more vulnerable to subsequent depression than or children who perceive themselves as competent.
Conflict in mind:
Youth become mentally depressed due to conflicts in their minds. Generally a young person’s mind is in constant dilemma. They fall into uncertainties and anxiousness when it comes time to choose the right field. For ex: After finishing the high school, they must choose the subject for higher study, and if they can’t choose right subject they become frustrated in their future.
In short adversity and deprivation are risk factors for depression, either directly or indirectly because they engender the negative and pessimistic thinking that turns surmountable negative happenings into the defeats that produce depression.
These are some of the reasons that youth become depressed. Every class in our societies should be concerned about the causes of depression in youth. We have to help them to come out of their depression and frustration and live normal lives and do creative work, which is beneficial for all.

Different measures which the parents, teachers, and peers can take to avoid depression and disappointment in youth.
1.      The primary responsibility is in the hands of parents. They know their child’s psychology and  nature. So they should understand their child’s mentality and should bring reassurance in them. Then only a child can come out easily from depression and frustration.
2.      criticizing