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Wednesday, April 9, 2014

I BTech :DR. HOMI JAHANGIR BHABHA

DR. HOMI JAHANGIR BHABHA

Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha was an all time genius whose altruistic efforts actuated a meteoric revolution in the scientific world. He brought the name of India in the list of seven nuclear powers of the world. He was a true Indian who put the welfare of the country above personal aggrandizement. His profound and relentless efforts in nuclear research will always be a source of inspiration. We can imbibe many lessons from his life.
A visionary, a man of farsightedness and determination Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha was the architect of Indian atomic energy programme. To be ignorant of the lives of the most celebrated men of antiquity is to continue to live in a state of childhood all our lives. 

Dr. Bhabha’s life was an embodiment of noble ideas from which many a lesson can be imbibed. Homi Bhabha was a man of integrity. He always puts service before self. All through his life he worked for his country and succeeded in making India a forerunner in the field of nuclear energy. Born on October 30, 1909 in a well to do Parsi family in Mumbai, he had his early education in metropolis itself. He did his schooling in Bombay’s cathedral. After graduating from Elphinstone College and the Royal Institute of Science, Mumbai, he went to Cambridge for further studies. 

He earned his engineering degree in 1930. That was the decade when the world witnessed numerous scientific advancements in the field of physics, from 1930 to 1934 by means of obtaining scholarship. He did significant work in identifying the elementary particles called mesons when the Second World War broke out in Europe. Dr. Bhabha returned to India. In 1940 he was appointed Reader and then Professor of physics in the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. It was on August 6, 1945 the first atom Bomb exploded in Hiroshima, Japan. All that remained was a flattened devastated land. The world was shaken. The incident upset Bhabha. It was only a year earlier he was contemplating the peaceful use of atomic energy. 

In 1945 founded the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Apart from being an eminent scientist he was also a skilled administrator; his scientific achievements personal reputation and friendships with Nehru enabled him to take government finances for atomic programmes and research. He was the first chairman of Atomic Energy Commission of India. He led the team of scientists in setting up Asia’s first atomic sector Apsara at Trombay. As the Chairman of this commission, his work involved two important areas. One of these was research and development the other was setting up of reactors and training personnel in specialized work areas. 

The nuclear plants at Tarapur, Rana Pratap Sagar and Kalapakkam are the fruition of his efforts. He was bestowed the honour of being the chairman of the first United States Nation Conference on the peaceful uses of Atomic Energy held in Geneva in 1955. He advocated checks and balances on nuclear proliferation and outlawing of atomic bombs by all countries. He firmly believed that atomic energy should be utilized for constructive purposes alone. As recognition of his undoubtable efforts and service to the nation he was offered a place in the Union Cabinet, Bhabha refused it. Like Gandhiji he never clamoured for honour and recognition. However, he continued to be the scientific advisor to Nehru and later to Lal Bahadur Shastri.
A talented individual Bhabha took keen interest in music and art. A bachelor all his life, Homi Jahangir Bhabha dedicated his time and energy to scientific purposes. He played an important role in scientific temper in the masses. Instead of searching for employees and scientists for his institute, he founded the institute in order to bring out the vast potential in young scientists and budding talents. His work on atomic energy brought him many honorary degrees of D.Sc. and Phd in India and abroad. On Jan 24, 1966, Dr. Babha was going to attend the international conference in Geneva but unfortunately the plane he was on board crashed on Mount Blanc in the Alps. His mantra ‘work is worship’ was so inspiring that when he died the employees of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, worked extra hours to mourn his death. Today when the world is divided on the issue of nuclear energy, with the super powers adopting double standards and other countries pursuing policies with vested interests, Bhabha’s life should be a shining example and a token of peace and development in the present nuclear age. His message can be summed up in the words of Long Fellow “Let us then be up and doing with a heart for any fate; still achieving, still pursuing learn to labour and to wait.” 

In fact, Dr. Bhabha initiated the process of harnessing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Hence, he can be called the architect of Pokhran I and II, which too are meant for maintenance of peace in the subcontinent in view of nuclear threats from our Northern and Western neighbors.

I BTech : JAGADISH CHANDRA BOSE

JAGADISH CHANDRA BOSE

What happens if you take a rich magistrate's son and make him learn in a village school sitting besides the sons of servants and fishermen? He will hear tales of birds and animals that make him curious about Nature. In addition, that makes him one of India's first scientists - Jagdish Chandra Bose.

Botanist and physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose was born in Mymensingh, India (now in Bangladesh) on November 30, 1858. He was educated first at the village school in Faridpur, where his father was a magistrate, Bhagwan Chandra Bose. Later he migrated to St. Xavier’s College, Calcutta at the age of thirteen. There he met Father Eugene Lafont, who was very interested in promoting modern science in India. He later went to the UK, where he got degrees from the universities of Cambridge and London. He also met Prafulla Chandra Ray, another pioneer of Indian science.

He came back and was made a Professor of Physics at Presidency College on the Viceroy's recommendation. However, the principal and other faculty, who were White, were very racially biased against him and gave only an acting appointment. He was offered one-third the salary of the school's white professors, and in protest at this slight, he took no salary at all for several years. They denied him any laboratory facilities, but he carried on his research work, buying equipment with his own salary. 

He remained at Presidency for his entire career, where he assembled the first modern scientific research facilities in Indian academia. He conducted landmark research of the response of plant and animal life to stimuli including electricity, light, sound, and touch, and showed how water and sap in plants and trees is elevated from roots due to capillary action. He invented the crescograph, an early oscillating recorder using clockwork gears to measure the growth and movements of plants in increments as small as 1/100,000 of an inch. His 1902 paper "Responses in the Living and Non-living" showed that plant and animal tissues share a similar electric-impulse response to all forms of stimulation, a finding which challenged conventional science of the time, and also showed that even inanimate objects — certain rocks and metals — have similar responses. In a 1907 paper, Bose established the electro transmission of excitation in plant and animal tissues, and showed that plants respond to sound, by growing more quickly in an environment of gentle speech or soft music, and growing more poorly when subjected to harsh speech or loud music.

Prior to his plant and animal experiments, Bose spent several years experimenting with electromagnetic waves, and conducted successful wireless signaling experiments in Calcutta in 1895. The invention of radio is usually credited to G. Marconi, but a comparison of their records suggests that at certain points of Bose's radio research, he was about a year ahead of the Italian scientist. In Marconi's first wireless trans-oceanic transmission in 1901 a mercury auto coherer was a key component of the receiving device, and while Marconi made no acknowledgment of Bose at the time, subsequent research has shown that Marconi's auto coherer was a near-exact replica of a mechanism invented by Bose, who explained it in detail in a demonstration at the Royal Society of London two years earlier.

Bose was the first Indian scientist to be widely respected as an equal in the halls of western science. When he demonstrated his mechanisms for generating and detecting radio waves in a January 1897 lecture before the Royal Institution in London, it was the first such lecture given by an Indian. He was elevated to knighthood in 1917, and in 1920, he became the first Indian elected to membership in the prestigious Royal Society. Bose, who came from a fairly affluent family, had no particular interest in the profit potential of his work, and refused to file patent claims. Friends in Bose’s name for his 1901 invention of a solid-state diode detector to detect electromagnetic waves filed a patent.

He founded the Bose Research Institute in Calcutta in 1917, which continues to conduct scientific research. He was a contemporary and friend of the poet Rabindranath Tagore. In 1937, Dr. Jagdish Chandra Bose breathed his last. In the pages of history are recorded the glorious achievements of many great men whom the world recognizes, loves and respects. Such men prove to be a true asset not only to their own countries but also to the world. Their lives become a message and a source of inspiration for generations to come. 

Dr. Jagdish Chandra Bose was one such personality who became immortal in the field of science. He was not only a scientist par excellence, but also a warm human being and a modest personality. Dr. Jagdish Chandra Bose was worthy and illustrious son of our motherland whom the nation feels proud of. He brought various laurels to our country. Immense hard working capacity, patience and simplicity were hall­marks of his personality. Dr. Jagdish Chandra Bose was a creative and imaginative scientist, a connoisseur of literature and a great lover of nature.

I BTech :TECHNOLOGY WITH A HUMAN FACE

TECHNOLOGY WITH A HUMAN FACE

E. F.(Ernst Friedrich) Schumacher, born in Germany and educated in England, was for many years the chief economist for Britain’s National Coal Board.
Schumacher never says that technology in itself is bad. However, he urges us to utilize the scientific techniques that help us get to the truth of the matter and increase our knowledge, to focus on technology that does not lead to giantism, speed, or violence and destruction of human-work enjoyment. What he instead asks us is to recapture simplicity in all that we do to produce a self-balancing system of nature.
According to Schumacher, the modern world has been shaped by technology and continues to shaped looks sick. We wonder that technology has helped us in many ways, yet the underlying factors of alleviation of poverty and unemployment have not been solved by technology at all. In that case, we have to consider whether it is possible better – a technology with human face. It very strange to say the laws and principles of technology, the product of man, are generally very different from those of human nature of living nature. There is measure in all natural things in their size, speed of violence. The system of nature, which man is a part of it, tends to be self-balancing, self-adjusting, self-clearing. However, it is not so with technology. It recognizes no self-limit principle in terms of its size, speed, or violence. It does not possess the virtues of being self-balanced, self-adjusting, self-cleansing. Somehow, man is dominated by technology and specialization. The modern technology acts like a foreign body and it has become inhuman in the subtle system of nature.
In his opinion, the modern technology was involved in three crises simultaneously. First, human nature revolts against suffocating and debilitating inhuman technological patterns. Second, the living environment is partially breakdown.  In addition, the third, it is clear that the inroads of the world’s non-renewable resources have become serious bottlenecks and virtual exhaustion loom ahead in the future. It is the result of materialism and limitless expansionism in a finite environment. It is a big question whether we could develop technology, which can solve all our problems, a technology with a human face.
Schumacher says, “The primary task of technology, it would seem, is to lighten the burden of work man has to carry in order to stay alive and develop his potential”. Technology that lightens our burden would help give us had better time to relax and do what we would like, increase our creativity, work things with our hands that give us joy as defined by Thomas Aquinas. Schumacher explains it is not the actual production of ‘total social time’ spent roughly one-fifth of one-third of one half, that is 3.5 percent and the rest 96.5 percent of ‘total social time’ is directly product less.  It pales into insignificance, that it carries no real weight, but alone prestige. Hence, virtually all-real production has been turned into an inhuman chore which does not enrich a man but empties him. Taking stock of our goals, everybody would take it a privilege to work usefully, creatively with his own hands and brains can actually produce things and would benefit the society.
The modern industrial society is not romantic and certainly not utopian. It is in deep trouble and holds no promise of survival. We must have the courage to dream if we want to survive and give our children a chance to survive. We must develop a new lifestyle, which is compatible with the real needs of human nature and living nature around us. In order to avoid the dire consequences, both by rich and poor countries, we need a different kind of technology, a technology more productive with a human face.

Schumacher suggests us small and beautiful thought about what he terms intermediate technology – ‘production by the masses, rather than mass productions’. The system of mass production based on sophisticated, highly capital intensive, high-energy input dependent, and human labour-saving technology is inherently violent, ecologically damaging. The system of production by the masses mobilizes the priceless resources, which are possessed by all human beings, their clever brains and skillful hands, and supports them with first class tools. Schumacher never says that technology in itself is bad. However, he urges us to utilize the scientific techniques that help us get to the truth of the matter and increase our knowledge, to focus on technology that does not lead to giantism, speed, or violence and destruction of human-work enjoyment. What he instead suggests us is to recapture simplicity in all that we do to produce a self-balancing system of nature.  

II BTech II SEMSTER : Morning Bells




Rag pickers pick up rag and other waste material from the streets refuse heaps  for a livelihood.
Main ideas: 
  1. Chotu had run away from his home not able to take his beating. Ramu was driven away from by his step mother.Irfan and Munna did not know when they found themselves on the pavements.
  2.  They were abandoned children and earning livelihood with small work. The old municipal sweeper was kind to them.
  3. Chotu discovered an infant inside the garbage bin.
  4. Female infant had been treated as a burden by their parents. So it was left in a dustbin.
  5. They quickly wrapped it up in the old newspaper lying about. They emptied their sack and they put it in the bundle.
  6. They had walked past a small temple on their way to the shed in the old city.
  7. To wash off the accumulated sins at the feet of their gods or feeling sure that their prayers would be answered, or just feeling happy that their attendance for the day is duly recorded.
  8. The rules of beggars are if a beggar falls ill or is unable to make it for a day or two only his or her spouse or children take the place. No other beggar is allowed to usurp the place. The beggar doesn’t have a son. He bent onto adopt Ramu so that his place would not be occupied by other.
  9. Chotu bought few incense sticks and some flowers.
  10. Once they were inside the shed, they had chosen a corner in the shed and dig a small pit. They carried her gently wrapped in a big enough rage. They put her in the pit and filled it up, put the flowers on top and then lighted incense sticks.
  11. This story expounds the kind heartedness of poorboys, in contrast with some of the more prosperous members of the society. It sends message to the people that the true essence of religion is not in the ritualistic acts but in our true act.

Look at Language: Writing style.
  1. He carefully separated the things around the object, standing on his toes, bending into the bin.(loose sentence)
  2. Once they were inside the shed, Ramu unwrapped the newspaper(periodic sentence).

Looking at language: Writing style
  1. Expression of Sympathy- ‘Take what you want but don’t scatter the garbage’- Old Muncipal sweeper.
  2. Expression of Satire: They look satisfied with themselves after washing off the accumulated sins.
  3. Expression of empathy: ‘All the four boys kneeled beside the pit. They put her in the pit and filled it up in the flowers.’


Looking at Language: Regional Flavour.

·   Intermix the local words and expressions in English stories and novels would bring out culture and tradition of the place.
·         It creates the sense of regionalism in readers mind.
·         it rises interest in reader as it is related to their surroundings.
·         As it is very easy to understand, the reader gets involve in the story and it is also easy to the writer to communicate with his readers.
Regional words that are used in an African story, titled ‘The Power of a Plate of Rice’ are- a pot of ogbono, yam, garri(west African dish made from cassava tubers), egusi (melon)
The above given are the reasons that made the writer intersperse Sanskrit /Hindi words with English.

Looking at language: Vocabulary by theme
  1. unearthing.
  2. drawn together, taking rest, dustbin, waste things.
  3. fate.
  4. dragging, gunny bags
  5. swarm, well covered.
Literary concept: Theme

1.      The phrase morning Bells signifies the start of new life. Here it symbolize the empathetic feeling of the boys. They had choosen a corner in the shed and digged a pit which was deep enough.They put here in the pit and filled it up, put the flowers on the top and then lighted the incense sticks. They had taken her as their own. The phrase ‘ morning bells’ is a powerful symbol of something that is empathetic and deplorable.
2.      Food, cloth, shelter are the basic necessities for people. The centre characters of this story are Chotu, Ramu, Irfan and Munna are struggling for survival in this world. Their struggle for survival brought the boys together and made them to work together.
3.      A man who had been practicing female infanticide and who had given subordinate status to women would have abandoned the infant in the garbage bin. Female infanticides, Satisahagamanam were some of the regressive traditions that were practiced in India. The man who left the baby in garbage bin would have come under this regressive tradition.
4.      The empathetic nature of Chotu and Ramu prompted to take out the body of the infant out of the garbage bin and give it an honest burial in the shed.
5.      The beggars have their fixed territories . No new entrant is allowed in the precincts without the consent of the congregation.
6.      Ramu, Chotu, Irfan, and Munna had treated the abandoned infant as one of the members in the family and so they had choosen a corner in the shed to bury her and named her ‘Chutki’.


Culture Point: Female Infanticide.

  We need to recognize that there is something fundamentally wrong with a culture that assumes the superiority of males and that celebrates Indian women for being meek, submissive and sacrificial. The feeling of superiority which evolved from our culture proved to be a big evil in our society and also it is one of the important causes behind the heinous practice of sex-selective abortions and female infanticide. Women are given subordinate status in society. She is treated as a big burden to family. Her life is spared; parents often neglect her and expect her to work around the house serving her brothers and father. In rural areas, girls are rarely sent to school, and if they are, they are removed after a few years of education. They try to kill the baby by adopting various means strangling the baby, giving her poison, dumping her in a garbage bin.


Culture point: Hypocrisy
  
Hypocritical show of religion: People enter temple to wash of their accumulated sins at  the feet of their gods, or to feel sure that their prayers would be answered.
Example for the true essence of religion: Ramu, chotu, Irfan, and Munna are known for the true essence of relgion. Inspite of being poor and abandoned they tried to help a small one who was thrown in a garbage bin.
Culture Point: Economy

  1. Economic activities that are promoted at a temple:  Flowers, incense sticks and the other things that the temple goers need to worship are sold near temple steps.
  2. Many of the people show their gratitude by showering benevolence on the row of beggars seated outside the temple. The beggars have their own fixed territories outside the temple. The more aggressive ones occupy the place closer to the main entrance and get a large portion of the ‘total collection’.



Culture Point: Abandoned Children

  1. True essence of religion is clearly pictured in the activity of four boys. They are poor and abandoned. They earn their lively with the waste materials that they collect from garbage bin.  One day, they found a small baby in a garbage bin. It eyes were closed as if it was sleeping peacefully in its mother’s gentle lap and not in the stinking bin.They quickly wrapped it up in the old newspaper and brought it to their shed. They chose a corner in the shed and dig a pit for her. They put her in the pit and filled it up with the flowers and incense sticks. They named her Chutky. They had given a place in their shed and treated her as one of the members in their family.
       This small activity of boys proves that the boys are nearer to God but not the temple goers who go to the temple to wash off their accumulated sins.
Reading Journal
       Chutky is a name of a small baby. Chutky was the name given by the four boys who found her in a garbage bin. She was picked up by the boys who were earning their lively hood with the waste materials that they collect from the garbage bin. They wrapped her carefully in a newspaper and carried her to their house. Usually the four boys return from their journey to the city dump yard with their sacks after the sun is up but that day they decided to turn up quickly to their shed. They walked past the temple teeming with well clad temple goers who gather their to wash off their accumulated sins at the feet of the gods. The four boys took their coins from their pockets and bought the flowers and incense sticks that were sold near the temple steps. They chose a corner in their own shed and buried it. They decorated the pit with flowers and lighted incense sticks. They prayed to the God for few minutes for that small baby.
        This  story is a clear example for the true essence of religion. The four boys who were poor and abandoned were very near to God. They had taken the responsibility of a small baby who was thrown in a garbage bin without the feeling of sympathy. This proves that the true essence of religion is not in hypocritical nature of temple goers but in the innocence of small children.

Monday, January 27, 2014

II Btech I Sem --- The Cop and The Anthem by O Henry

Main ideas  (P.No.103)


1 Who is Soapy?

A: Soapy is a homeless and jobless person who tries to get arrested and stay in jail.



2 Where does he want to go and why?

A :He wanted to go to the island where he would stay warm during winter and get food for free.



3 How does Soapy plan on getting arrested?

A :He made attempts to get arrested by damaging public property, by misbehaving, by making petty theft and by not paying money after eating to the heart’s content.

   


4 Is Soapy a gentleman?

A: Soapy is a degraded person who has become so lazy, even to earn.



5 How does he feel when he hears the church anthem?

A He suddenly realized his mistake. It brought an immediate and wonderful change in his soul.



6 O.Henry is famous for his ironic or unexpected endings. Why  is soapy’s arrest an example of irony?

  

A :Until Soapy was a degraded man, he failed in getting arrested. But he was unexpectedly

    arrested for no reason, when he transformed into a pure soul.



Looking at the language : Writing style  (P.No.103)



1-d        
2-c    
3-g     
4-f     
5-h     
6-b       
7-e      
8-a



Looking at the language : Vocabulary by theme  (P.No.104)


a.degraded   
b.dacadent     
c.insolvency     
d.base               
e.mire            
f.ignoble



Literary Concept : Theme  (P.No.105)



1 On a symbolic level, what central idea does the story present regarding the homeless?

A :It presents them as a burden to the society. They create nothing more than nuisance. They talk nothing more than nonsense. They simply lead life without any expectations.

  


2 Does the story say something about life in a big city?

A: Ofcourse, life in a big city is not so easy. When an individual has no intention to meet certain goal and to lead an honourable life, life becomes a miserable one.

  


3 On the universal level, what emotions does Soapy exhibit?

A: Soapy has a strong desire to spend his winter in a warm place, where he could get his free food. He has negative emotions for charity because he has to show his gratitude in some or other means. He displays self-respect, courage, deceptive mentality, jealousy, grumbling nature, receptivity and retrospective nature. He is a man who displays several shades and emotions throughout the story.

 
     4 What do you thonk is the main theme of the story?

A :The main theme of the story is that everyone should introspect and lead a life with certain goals, ambitions and positive attitude. One shouldn’t get defeated by the life’s miserable conditions.

 
 


Culture point : The homeless and the police  (P.No.106)



1 How does O.Henry characterize Soapy, in general?

A Soapy is characterized to be a dude, who does nothing. He has no ambitions as he used to have, earlier.He tries to depend on others an dpass his life without doing any work.



2 Does this characterization………………………………this portrayal?

A: Americans may or maynot agree with this portrayal. But, it seemed appropriate to me because any homeless person has negative feelings for the society and tries to get the best of anything without any effort.



3 How does O.Henry portray the different policemen in the story?

A: Many a policeman has been described here. One doesn’t believe the truth, one has wrong interpretation, one simply watches what’s going on, one laughs at his condition and one arrests Soapy for no reason.



4 Do you agree………………………..from your observations?

A :Every individual is with a special attitude and so is a cop. He does his duty but it depends on several associating factors and the orders they receive. Their experience and interpretations carry them in their own way of behavior.



Literary Concept : Irony  (P.No.108)



1 What does Soapy intend to happen throughout the story?

A :Soapy intended to happen nothing more than getting a free shelter and food. He made several attempts, which put him down as an individual, in order to get arrested.

   



2 What does he want to happen at the end of the story?

A He wanted to battle with his desperate fate. He wanted to make a man of himself by pulling himself out of the confused state. He wanted to conquer the evil and lead an ambitious, clean  life.

  

 3 What, indeed, does happen at the end of the story?

A :Soapy realized his mistake and wanted to overcome it. But he was arrested by a cop simply.
  

4 Is this ending unexpected to you?

A: Yes, the ending was unexpected. The expected ending was either Soapy fulfilling his dream by getting arrested or settling down on the park bench once again. But the author has brought reformation in his character and then made an unusual ending.

  


5 Why is the ending of the story ironic?

A The end is ironic because it didn’t happen when it is expected; and happened when it

    shouldn’t. Soapy was arrested for no reason and that too, after he had realized his mistake.

Reading journal  (P.No.109)

I don’t pity Soapy. He has chosen a life which has no value. All his earlier dreams were vanished and he has no ambition at all for life. He wanted to depend on others and get everything for free without any hard work.

I liked the story very much. It was fun to read the attempts made by Soapy but at the end, when he was arrested, a pity feel arouse in me along with a smile. It was an expected change in him.



Activity (P.No.110)

Write down the story in simple English in about 200 words:



Soapy is a homeless, jobless person. He made a park bench his home. As the winter is approaching, he needed some warm shelter. After much thinking, he planned to get arrested by the police and make the jail his winter home where he could get free food also.

            He started his attempts to get arrested. In this process, he makes a petty theft, damages public property, tries to misbehave with a young lady who turns to be a call-girl, behaves in a disorderly manner in public and eats in a hotel to declare his insolvency later.

            But he was unsuccessful in all his attempts. He fails to draw the attention of the police. His desire to get arrested is not fulfilled.

            In a desperate mood, Soapy happens to hear an anthem from an old church. Suddenly, his soul gets transformation. He recollects his ambitions and  clean life and soon decides to start working. He now wants to place himself in a good position, get an honour and dignity.

            But, he is ironically arrested by a cop because he is loitering with no reason in front of a church and the magistrate ordered that he would be sent to the island for three months as a punishment.