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Wednesday, April 1, 2015

Emerging Technologies : Btech II Sem



‘Emerging Technologies’ is adapted from Technology Review, Inc. highlighting the new emerging technologies in Spain. Spain is fast becoming a leader in innovation and generating advanced solutions in the industries .The country is determined to deepen and intensify its productive specialization in industries that depend on technology and innovation.
Researchers are creating novel types of photovoltaic devices that could finally make solar power a broadly practical source of renewable energy in Spain. At the Solucar solar plant outside Seville, the light rays are coming out of a high tower and falling on tilted upturned mirrors. The truth of the situation is that the upturned mirrors are tracking the sun and radiating its power onto a blindingly white square at the top of the tower creating the equivalent of the power of 600 suns. This tower uses concentrating solar technology (CSP). Solar thermal energy is a technology which harnesses solar energy for thermal energy requirement in industries, residential sector and commercial setup. It works by utilizing heat of the sun.
Spanish companies and research centers are taking the lead in the revival of  CSP. Its installation is quite expensive. Hence, it is effective only in a large scale. At the same time, the photovoltaic system is growing exponentially huge which converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Spanish companies are investing huge in photovoltaic fields and investigate the next generation of this technology in its large production. In contrast, a solar thermal collector supplies heat by absorbing sunlight, for the purpose of either direct heating or indirect electrical power generation. CSP has until recently cost nearly twice as much as traditional natural gas or coal power plants, and it is efficient only on large scale.
The most common technology so far, is based on the series of parabolic troughs, huge curved mirrors about 18 feet wide that collects the sun’s rays and focuses it on a receiver’s pipe in the middle. Oil streams through that pipe along a loop of troughs. The mirrors slowly track the sun from the east to west during daytime hours, and the oil reaches about 400oc which is transferred to a steam generator for the production of electricity by running a turbine. The tower technology works on the same principle as the troughs – the sun’s heat –but uses curved mirrors called heliostats. It directs the sun’s light to a central receiver at the top of the tower. The engineering behind such a plant takes into account both the need to heat up the receiver and the importance of moderating the energy directed at it. The tower in the Solucar plant is also provided by a small amount of natural gas in a rainy or cloudy weather prevents the plant’s full operation.             
Spain would like to jump-start the production of Solar Energy with its advanced research and would like to be the first in the local to global access to the necessary technology.


Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Jagadish Chandra Bose : Trail Blazer


J C Bose was born in Mymensingh, India (now in Bangladesh) on November 30, 1858. He was educated first at the village school in Faridpur, where his father was a magistrate, Bhagwan Chandra Bose. Later he migrated to St. Xavier’s College, Calcutta at the age of 13. There he met Father Eugene Lafont, who was very interested in promoting modern science in India. He later went to the UK, where he got degrees from the universities of Cambridge and London.
He came back and was made a Professor of Physics at Presidency College on the Viceroy's recommendation. However, the principal and other faculty, who were White, were very racially biased against him and gave only an acting appointment. He was offered one-third the salary of the school's The White professors, and in protest at this slight he took no salary at all for several years. They denied him any laboratory facilities, but he carried on his research work, buying equipment with his own salary.
He remained at Presidency for his entire career, where he assembled the first modern scientific research facilities in Indian academia. He conducted landmark research of the response of plant and animal life to stimuli including electricity, light, sound, and touch, and showed how water and sap in plants and trees is elevated from roots due to capillary action. He invented the Cresco graph.
His 1902 paper "Responses in the Living and Non-living" showed that plant and animal tissues share a similar electric-impulse response to all forms of stimulation, a finding which challenged conventional science of the time, and also showed that even inanimate objects - certain rocks and metals -have similar responses. In a 1907 paper Bose established the electro transmission of excitation in plant and animal tissues, and showed that plants respond to sound, by growing more quickly in an environment of gentle speech or soft music, and growing more poorly when subjected to harsh speech or loud music.
           The invention of radio is usually credited to G. Marconi, but a comparison of their records suggests that at certain points of Bose's radio research. Bose was the first Indian scientist to be widely respected as an equal in the halls of western science. When he demonstrated his mechanisms for generating and detecting radio waves in a January 1897 lecture before the Royal Institution in London, it was the first such lecture given by an Indian.
            He was elevated to knighthood in 1917, and in 1920 he became the first Indian elected to membership in the prestigious Royal Society. Bose, who came from a fairly affluent family, had no particular interest in the profit potential of his work, and refused to file patent claims. A patent was filed by friends in Bose's name for his 1901 invention of a solid-state diode detector to detect electromagnetic waves.
He founded the Bose Research Institute in Calcutta in 1917. In the pages of history are recorded the glorious achievements of many great men whom the world recognises, loves and respects. Such men prove to be a true asset not only to their own countries but also to the world. Their lives become a message and a source of inspiration for generations to come. Bose was a creative and imaginative scientist, a connoisseur of literature and a great lover of nature.

                                                                            

Saturday, March 7, 2015

Climate Change And Human Strategy --- E K Federov : BTECH II SEM UNIT 2



          E.K. Federov says that human beings are increasingly concerned about irreversible changes taking places in the natural environment, especially in regard to climate change. In the course of their scientific and technological progress, human beings have transformed the environment.Despite these developments, the modern life requires balanced understanding and adjustment to climate and other natural elements.
             Now a days we live on the planet which has got neither infinite resilient environment nor its resources inexhaustible. In such circumstances, any human error can lead to very large cumulative error. They are vulnerable to climate change. It is both a consequence and a demonstration of the workings of complex process in atmosphere, the oceans and on land. However, these complex factors do exhibit some continuity and permanence.
            There are several atmospheric and oceanic parameters which are responsible for the overall stability of climate in different parts of the world. They include manmade extreme temperatures, precipitation amounts, seasonal river discharges etc…they vary from one part of the planet to another. Climate is the sum of all these relatively stable characteristics of the atmosphere. Several tens of millions of years ago this situation began to change.
            The temperatures of high latitudes fell gradually. About two million years ago this process accelerated and Arctic temperature dropped sharply. As a result a glacial period had taken place in which repeated advances of ice sometimes reached mid-latitudes with intervening periods when the ice moved back.
            In his views, there are two kinds of factors that cause the climate to change over long periods of time. The external factors might include the variations in the quality of radiation emitted by the Sun or changes in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. The internal factors include the formation and movement of continental areas, the growth of mountain ranges and volcanic activity of various kinds that produces dust and gases which may alter transparency and other characteristics of the Earth’s surface.
            Human existence and development has affected climate patterns on the earth in many ways. The transformation land surface of the planet was by deforestation, ploughing land reclamation, the construction of huge man-made lakes, reservoirs, and the conversion of large areas to a built-up environment and so on. The water and energy balancing have also significant elements led to climate change. These noticeable changes are so far local but likely to become regional and global during the next 200years.

            We must plan set off long-term actions which enables man to avoid the adverse consequences of climate changes. They will inevitably occur in the future. He believes that it is possible with the international co-operation to access global problems and calls for ‘Change for the Better’.