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Friday, August 18, 2017

Unit 1 : The Power of Prayer by Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

             When Abdul Kalam visited the Bharatiya Temple & Cultural Centre (BTCC) in USA, he addressed and interacted with the members.  In his address, he discussed the topic “Faith, Religion & Spirituality in the 21st Century”. In his speech, he discussed about the importance of prayer.  He said that the prayer is a force which brings mental peace. . The Prayer is the unique power in the world that seems to overcome the power called laws of nature. Normally, people do prayers for themselves, for their family and friends. Many good hearts pray for the welfare of society and fellow human beings.
          Kalam’s teacher Rev. Iyyadorai Solomon brought two newspaper clippings and narrated two incidents which touched his heart.  The first news item and the most important one, which embedded in his memory, is about Mahatma Gandhi, walking barefoot in Calcutta in Bengal on 15 August, 1947, removing the pain of riot affected people.  As Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi would have been there at the Red Fort to unfurl the National Flag on Independence Day.  But Gandhi was not there at the Red Fort.  But he was in the riot affected areas to console people.  He had nurtured the leadership who could take charge of the nation during the freedom celebration. Mahatma Gandhi was as an  embodiment of nobility, elevated thinking and a leader with great concern for the sufferings of the human beings.  Kalam was inspired by his simplicity and opines that our country needs such type of leaders to make progress and shun violence and terrorism.
          Kalam narrated an incident about Abraham Lincoln, which influenced him a lot. This incident brings out the humility of a great leader and is a lesson for humanity.He was born in the state of Kentucky in USA.  Though he faced many hurdles ,He made extraordinary efforts to attain knowledge while working.  He lost the election for senator but he gained a national reputation that won him the Republican nomination for President in 1860. He issued the emancipation proclamation that declared freedom for those slaves within the confederacy.  He is remembered for this great action.
        One day in the senate, a senator who was very arrogant stood up before Lincoln and remembered him that he was a shoemaker’s son.  The whole senate laughed.  But it was difficult to humiliate a man like Lincoln.  Lincoln replied to him that he was tremendously grateful for the senator as he reminded him of his father who was dead.  He offered to mend their shoes if there is a trouble with their shoes as he learnt the art of shoe making from his father.  And tears came to his eyes in the memory of his great father.
During the year 2003, he visited a Buddhist monastery at Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh.  He stayed there nearly a day.  He observed happiness among all the villagers in spite of severe winter condition.  He asked the Chief Monk, how the people were always happy there.  The Chief Monk said that in the present world, we had the problem of distrust and unhappiness transforming into violence.  When we remove 'I' and 'Me' from our minds, we can eliminate ego, hatred towards fellow human beings, violence in thinking and action.  If violence is taken away, peace springs in human minds.  Then peace will blossom everywhere in the society.


Thursday, August 17, 2017

Unit 3 : Secret of Work by Swami Vivekanada

        The world is filled with miseries and physical help alone cannot cure them. Until and unless man’s nature is changed, miseries cannot be removed completely by any of the physical help. In his opinion, the only solution to make people free from misery is to make men pure, spiritually strong and educated. Then alone misery will completely stop in the world.
     Swami Vivekananda described the nature of the work as the mixture of both good and evil. Good and bad both make a chain that bind soul. We should work with a spirit of non-attachment to it, so that we can work as masters, not as slaves. According to Bhagavad Gita, we must work incessantly but should not be attached to it. Every work we do, every move of our body and every thought we think leave an impression on the mind. They work in the subconscious mind and finally they determine our character.  This is what is called Samskara.     
         He compared human being with tortoise. The tortoise tucks its feed, head inside the shell, and will not come out even though you break the shell into pieces. In the same way the character of the man who has control over his thoughts and deeds would remain as unchangeably established character. He controls his own inner forces and nothing can draw him out against his will.
       By this continuous reflex of the good thoughts and good impressions moving over the surface of the mind, the tendency to do well becomes stronger. As a result, we will be able to control the Indriyas (sense organs).such is how the character of man is formed and only a man of character can get truth.
        He emphasized a theory called non-attachment in the work because both good work and bad work make the soul bonded with work. It makes us to do work as a slave, not like a master. If once we detach ourselves from the selfish slave’s work, we can receive love and become free. Real life makes us “unattached”.
             The two most important ways, in which we can work without expecting anything, in return, are to love the world and to become a giver without any thought return.Attachment comes only when we expect a return.
           Swami Vivekananda said “work, but let not the action or the thought produce deep impression on your mind”. He says the Lord himself works incessantly, but ever without attachment.                                    


Saturday, October 22, 2016

Phrasal Verbs



A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb which creates a meaning different from the original verb.

 Example:
I ran into my teacher at the movies last night. run + into = meet 
 He ran away when he was 15. run + away = leave home

Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. An intransitive verb cannot be followed by an object.
Example:
He suddenly showed up. "show up" cannot take an object

 Some phrasal verbs are transitive. A transitive verb can be followed by an object.
Example:
I made up
the story. "story" is the object of "make up"

Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable. The object is placed between the verb and the preposition.
Example:
I talked
my mother into letting me borrow the car. 
She looked the phone number up.

 Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. The object is placed after the preposition.
 Example:
I ran into
an old friend yesterday. 
They are looking into the problem.

 Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object in both places.
   Example:
  I looked
the number up in the phone book.
  I looked up the number in the phone book.

NOTE: Although many phrasal verbs can take an object in both places, you must put the object between the verb and the preposition if the object is a pronoun.
Example:
I looked
the number up in the phone book.
 I looked up the number in the phone book.
I looked it up in the phone book. correct 
I looked up it in the phone book. incorrect


Here is a short list of common phrasal verbs.


Separable
back up - cause to move back; support

blow off - ignore

break down – stop functioning, separate into component parts

break off - cancel

break up – separate, stop dating

bring about - cause to happen

bring off - accomplish 

bring on – cause

bring up – introduce a topic, raise a child

call off - cancel; order away

call up – telephone

call on – ask a student for an answer

carry on - continue 

carry out - fulfill; complete; accomplish

cheer up - cause to become cheerful

clean up - clean

close down - close permanently 

close up - close temporarily 

count in - include 

count out – exclude

cross out – eliminate

drink up – ingest quickly

drop off – leave someone or something someplace

figure out - interpret; understand

fill in / out - complete (a printed form) 

find out - discover 

fix up - repair; arrange in a suitable manner 

get across - cause to be understood 

give back - return 

give out - distribute; announce 

give up - surrender something

have on - be dressed in 

have over - entertain someone informally

hold off - delay; restrain

keep up - continue; keep the same pace 

leave out – omit

look up – search for in a reference book

make up – invent, create

move over - move to the side 

pass out - distribute 

pass up - not take advantage of

pick up - come to meet; learn casually

point out – indicate

put off - postpone 

put on - dress in; deceive or fool

set up - arrange 

show off - exhibit ostentatiously

take out – remove, ask for a loan

take over – take control

take up – to begin to practice a hobby

tear down - destroy 

tear up - tear into small pieces 

tell off - scold; reprimand 

think over - consider 

think through - consider from beginning to end 

throw away - discard 

try on - put on a garment to verify the fit 

try out - test 

turn down - refuse; lower the volume 

work out - solve 

write down – record
Non-separable

back out of - fail to keep a promise

break into - go into room forcibly; suddenly begin 

break out – to begin suddenly

care for - like; guard; supervise

carry on with - continue

catch up with - cover the distance 

check up on - examine; verify

come across - find accidentally

come by - find accidentally

count on - rely on

do away with - abolish

do with – be useful

do without - deprive oneself of

drop in at/on - visit casually 

drop out of - leave; quit

fill in for - substitute for

get away with - do without being caught 

get in - enter (a vehicle)

get off - descend from; leave

get on - enter (a vehicle); mount

get on with - proceed with

get over – recover, recuperate

get through with - terminate, finish

give in – submit to the will of the other

go around – sufficient quantity for everyone

go on - continue

go over – review, visit informally

go out – date someone

hang around - remain idly in the vicinity 

keep up with - maintain the pace of

look after - take care of

look down on - feel superior to

look for - search

look forward to - anticipate

make up for - compensate for

pick on - tease; bully

put up with – tolerate

stop by - visit informally

take after - resemble

talk back to - answer impolitely

talk over - discuss

turn into - become

watch out for - be careful for


Find out the correct :

1. She ought to give in/off/up smoking. It's bad for the health.

2. She felt a little chilly so she put on/off/out her sweater.

3. He understands animals because he was brought over/up/in on a farm
.
4. He lives in London but often goes over/along/down to Paris on business.

5. She lives in Scotland but often goes over/along/down to London on    
    business.

6. Bob is not very dependable; you can’t count up/off/on him.

7. The baby has red hair. He takes up/in/after his Irish mother.

8. "Come on, John, drink down/up/in or we'll miss the train."

9. The shop was losing money, so they had to shut it up/off/down.

10. They took in/off/out a mortgage to buy their new house.

Word List : to greet people , Introduce people , saying good bye and talking about health


Greeting People 
  Hello. / Hi.
Good morning. (before 12 o'clock)
Good afternoon.(after 12 o'clock)
Good evening ( after 4 pm ....)

Introducing People 
  What's your name?
  Who are you?
   My name is ...
   I am ...
   My friends call me ...
   You can call me ...
   Haven't we met (before)?
   Yes, I think we have.
    No, I don't think we have.
    I think we've already met.
    I don't think we've met (before).
    This is ... Meet ... Have you met ...?
    Yes, I have.
    No, I haven't.
    Yes, I think I have.
     No, I don't think I have.
    Hello, ... (name) Nice to meet you. (informal)
    Pleased to meet you. How do you do? (formal)
    Nice to see you.
    Nice to see you again.


Say Goodbye
   Good bye.
   Bye. / See you.
   See you later.
   See you soon.
   See you tomorrow.
   See you next week.
   Good night.


 Health 
   How are you?
   How are you today?
   Fine, thank you/thanks.
   Not too bad.
   Very well. I'm okay / all right.
   Not too well, actually.
   What's wrong with you?  
  What's the matter with you?
   Are you all right?
  I'm tired I'm exhausted .
  I've got a cold.

Word List to Express the appearance :




Appearance

I am / You are / He is / She is …

tall         small         overweight, fat            slim       young

old         … years old.

beautiful / pretty (M├Ądchen / Frau), handsome (Junge / Mann)

sun-tanned      pale

I have / You have / He has / She has (got) …

blue / green / grey / brown eyes

freckles          a beard                a full beard        a moustache
 
a goatee        a stubbly beard      blond hair          red hair

brown hair      black hair               dyed hair          blond highlights

short hair       long hair                 straight hair      curly hair / curls

a bald head     a square / round / triangular / oval face

a big / small / long nose

big / small ears

Clothing and Accessories

I wear / You wear / He wears / She wears …

glasses    contact lenses

I am wearing / You are wearing / He/She is wearing …

earrings           a necklace           a wristband      a bracelet

a cap                a red scarf           a tie

Character

I am / You are / He is / She is …

shy               quiet            lively              active

easygoing     outgoing       nice                 friendly

funny              happy        annoying            sad

aggressive        a pain in the neck               a little chatter box